PHENOTYPIC, GENETIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATIONS IN S1 PROGENIES OF LANDRACE MAIZE
Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to the Poaceae family and stands out among the most cultivated cereals worldwide because of its great economic and social importance. This study aims to estimate and identify phenotypic, genetic, and environmental associations in S 1 maize progenies from the southern Rio Grande do Sul landrace populations. The experimental design was the augmented blocks, with ten S1 progenies groups, and two commercial controls, the simple cross hybrids Pioneer 30F53 and Agroeste 1590, allocated in four repetitions. The S1 progenies were obtained after self-fertilization of random plants in the maize landrace populations, being them: Amarelão, Argentino Branco, Argentino Amarelo, Branco Vermelho Indio, Branco Oito Carreiras, Caiano Rajado, Cateto Branco, Criolão and Dente de Ouro, and the open pollinated variety BRS Planalto. The S 1 progenies present specific genetic and phenotypic correlations in both senses and magnitudes, becoming difficult to define strategies for indirect selection based on correlation between traits. Spike length presents strong and positive genetic and phenotypic correlation with spike mass and may be used for indirect selection of S 1 progenies with greater spike mass, regardless of the origin of the progeny.Positive phenotypic and genotypic correlations of intermediate magnitudes were verified between spike diameter and grain depth, which are similar for all progenies. Plant height reveals strong and positive phenotypic and genetic associations with spike insertion height, however, this trait did not steadily correlate with grain yield.The environmental correlations present significant effects of the phenotypes expression of S1 progenies produced in the southern Rio Grande do Sul.